Choose Your NYC Borough: New York City | Manhattan | Queens | Bronx | Staten Island | Brooklyn

Little Germany, ZIP 10030

Little Germany, known in German as Kleindeutschland and Deutschländle and called Dutchtown by contemporary non-Germans, was a German immigrant neighborhood on the Lower East Side of Manhattan in New York City. The neighborhood began to decline in the late 19th century from the pressure of non-German immigrants settling in the area, and the loss of second-generation families to other German-American communities, a decline that was exascerbated in 1904 when the General Slocum disaster wiped out the social core of the neighborhood.

Beginning in the 1840s, large numbers of German immigrants entering the United States provided a constant population influx for Little Germany. In the 1850s alone, 800,000 Germans passed through New York. New York City would by 1855 become one of the three cities in the world with the largest population of German speakers, outranked only by Berlin and Vienna. The German immigrants differed as they usually were educated and had marketable skills in crafts. More than half of the bakers and cabinet makers were Germans or of German origin, and many Germans also worked in the construction business. Educated Germans such as Joseph Wedemeyer, Oswald Ottendorfer and Friedrich Sorge were important players in the creation and growth of trade unions, and many Germans and their vereins (German-American clubs) were also often politically active. Oswald Ottendorfer who was the owner-editor of the Staats-Zeitung, New York's largest German-American newspaper was among the wealthiest and socially prominent German-Americans in the city. He also became the undisputed leader of the newly important German Democracy, which would would help Fernando Wood recapture the mayors office in 1861 and elect Godfrey Gunther as mayor in 1863.

Germans tended to cluster more than other immigrants at the time, such as the Irish, and in fact those from a particular German state preferred to live together. This choice of living in wards with those from the same region was perhaps the most distinct and overlooked feature regarding Kleindeutschland. For instance the Prussians who by 1880 accounted for nearly one-third of the city's German-born population were most heavily concentrated in the Tenth Ward. Germans from Hessen-Nassau tended to live in the Thirteenth Ward in the 1860's and in the ensuing decades moved northward to the borders of the Eleventeenth and Seventeenth wards. Germans from Baden by the 1880's tended to favor living in the Thirteenth Ward and Wurttembergers began by the 1860's chose to migrate northward into the Seventeenth Ward. The Bavarians (including Rhinelanders from territories suject to the King of Bavaria) the largest group of German immigrants in the city by 1860 were distributed evenly in each German ward except the Prussian Tenth. Aside from the small group of Hanoverians who had a strong sense of self-segration forming their own "Little Hanover" in the Thirteenth Ward the Bavarians displayed the strongest regional bias, mainly toward Prussians. At all times, however, the most distinctive characteristic of their settlement pattern remained that they would be found wherever the Prussians were fewest.

In 1845, Little Germany was already the largest German-American neighborhood in New York; by 1855, its German population had more than quadrupled, displacing the American-born workers who had first moved into the new housing, and at the beginning of the 20th century, it was home to almost 50,000 people. From a core in the riverside 11th Ward, it expanded to encompass most of the 10th, 13th, and 17th Wards also: the same area that later became known as the Jewish Lower East Side. Tompkins Square Park, in what is now known as Alphabet City, was an important public space that the Germans called the Weisse Garten. There were beer gardens, sport clubs, libraries, choirs, shooting clubs, German theatres, German schools, German churches, and German synagogues. A large number of factories and small workshops operated in the neighborhood, initially in the interiors of blocks, reached by alleyways. There were major commercial streets including department stores. Stanley Nadel quotes a description of the neighborhood at its peak in the 1870s:

At the beginning of the '70s, after a decade of continuously rising immigration, Kleindeutschland (the German city in the ever-growing Cosmopolis) was in fullest bloom. Kleindeutschland, called Dutchtown by the Irish, consisted of 400 blocks formed by some six avenues and nearly forty streets. Tompkins Square formed pretty much the center. Avenue B, occasionally called the German Broadway, was the commercial artery. Each basement was a workshop, every first floor was a store, and the partially roofed sidewalks were markets for goods of all sorts. Avenue A was the street for beer halls, oyster saloons and groceries. The Bowery was the western border (anything further west was totally foreign), but it was also the amusement and loafing district. There all the artistic treats, from classical drama to puppet comedies, were for sale.

Disaster struck Little Germany on June 15, 1904. St Mark's Evangelical Lutheran Church had organized their 17th annual picnic to commemorate the end of the school year. A large paddlewheeler, the General Slocum, was chartered for a cruise on the East River to a picnic site on Long Island. Over 1,300 passengers, mostly women and children, participated in the event. Shortly after departing, a fire started in a storage compartment in the forward section. Although the ship was equipped with lifeboats and preservers, both were in disrepair. The inadequacy of the safety equipment, compounded with the poor leadership of Captain William Van Schaick, caused an estimated 1,021 passengers to die by fire or drowning. Although only one percent of Little Germany's population was killed by the disaster, those lost were members of the most established families, the social foundation of Little Germany's community, and the extent of the disaster had enormous repercussions on the St Mark's parish. The disaster as well as the accelerated exodus that was already well underway and the future anti-German sentiment that would occur during World War 1 would lead Kleindeutschland to extinction. Some bereaved parents, spouses, children, and friends committed suicide. To further complicate matters The desire to find a culprit, conflicting public opinion, and family quarrels among survivors about the distribution of money from a Relief Fund led the culture of Little Germany to turn sour. The final indignity was the jury's refusal to find Captain Van Schaick guilty of manslaughter; one of the only things he was ever punished for was lack of safety-preparadness.

The General Slocum disaster was perhaps the final blow in hastening the end of Little Germany, but for decades before that event, the neighborhood had been contracting in size, both in population and in area. Near the end of the 19th century, between 1870 and 1900, second-generation German-Americans began to leave the old neighborhood to resettle in Brooklyn, in particular in Williamsburg, and farther uptown on the East Side of Manhattan, in what would come to be known as Yorkville. At the same time, the press of new mass immigration into the city of not only Germans – whose numbers peaked in the 1880s – and Irish, but also large numbers of Russian and eastern European Jews and Italians from the south of that country caused Little Germany to contract, so that rather than taking up a large portion of the East Side below 23rd Street, it was eventually bounded by 14th Street on the north, Grand Street on the south, Broadway on the west, and the East River on the east. As well, the new mix of immigrants coming in changed the character of the area, so that what had been Kleindeutschland began to transform into the Lower East Side. The Slocum disaster accelerated the process, as in its wake, much of the remaining German population moved, to Yorkville and elsewhere.

Alphabet City  Astor Row  Battery Park City  Bowery  Carnegie Hill  Chelsea  Chinatown  Civic Center  Columbus Circle  Cooperative Village  Diamond District  East Harlem  East Village  Financial District  Five Points  Flatiron District  Garment District  Gramercy Park  Greenwich Village  Hamilton Heights  Harlem  Hell's Kitchen  Herald Square  Hudson Heights  Hudson Yards  Inwood  Kips Bay  Koreatown  Lenox Hill  Le Petit Senegal  Liberty Island  Lincoln Square  Little Germany  Little Italy  Little Syria  Loisaida  Lower East Side  Lower Manhattan  Madison Square  Manhattan Valley  Manhattanville  Marble Hill  Marcus Garvey Park  Meatpacking District  Midtown Manhattan  Morningside Heights  Murray Hill  NoHo  Nolita  NoMad  Peter Cooper Village  Pomander Walk  Radio Row  Randall's Island  Roosevelt Island  Rose Hill  San Juan Hill  SoHo  South Street Seaport  South Village  Strivers' Row  Stuyvesant Square  Stuyvesant Town  Sugar Hill  Sutton Place  Sylvan Court Mews, Sylvan Place, and Sylvan Terrace  Tenderloin  Theatre District  Times Square  TriBeCa  Tudor City  Turtle Bay  Two Bridges  Union Square  Upper East Side  Upper Manhattan  Upper West Side  Wards Island  Washington Heights  Waterside Plaza  West Village  Yorkville

The Chrysler Building

Alphabet City - Astor Row - Battery Park City - Bowery - Carnegie Hill - Chinatown - Civic Center - Columbus Circle - Cooperative Village - Diamond District - East Harlem - East Village - Ellis Island - Five Points - Fort George - Garment District - Governors Island - Greenwich Village - Hamilton Heights - Harlem - Hells Kitchen - Herald Square - Hudson Heights - Hudson Yards - Inwood - Koreatown - Le Petit Senegal - Liberty Island - Lincoln Square - Little Brazil - Little Germany - Little Italy - Lower East Side - Lower Manhattan - Madison Square - Manhattan Valley - Manhattanville - Marble Hill - Marcus Garvey Park - Midtown - Midtown West - Morningside Heights - Murray Hill - Noho - Nolita - Radio Row - Randalls Island - Rockefeller Center - Roosevelt Island - Soho - South Street Seaport - Spanish Harlem - Strivers Row - Sugar Hill - Sutton Place - Tenderloin - Theater District - Times Square - Tribeca - Tudor City - Turtle Bay - Two Bridges - Upper East Side - Upper Manhattan - Upper West Side - Wards Island - Washington Heights - West Harlem - West Village - Yorkville -


This site is going to add a new feature called Electronic Pest Control Calculator.You have to enter pest related information into this pest control calculator and it will give you a good idea of how much your pest control services will cost, at this time you can speak with a live operator.

Pest Control of New York City provides several pest control services for our clients like commercial exterminator services and residential pest control services in New York City, NYC.

  do-it-yourself extermination

Our exterminators are extremely efficient at Pest Control and Extermination. You do not need to go for ineffective pest control products, just make a schedule for our caring andprofessional pest control services and then our exterminator will do everything for you.

Read More>>

pest-free house

Available 7 days a week 9am to 9pm

Sign up for PayPal and

start accepting credit card payments instantly.

Weather Forecast | Weather Maps | Weather Radar

Each Office is Independently Owned and Operated

Last Updated on Wednesday, July 17, 2019


New York's #1 Website Directory